Workplace bullying is one of the most mentally and psychologically draining experiences someone can go through. It can take a heavy toll on their mental health, and make them feel dejected and emotionally broken. Here are the 6 stages of workplace bullying and how they manifest to become a toxic work culture.
Research explains the predictable cycle of workplace abuse. Workplace bullying begins like a blister, small, and undetected. Over time, however, it can render targets immobile, fully engrossed in pain, and completely surprised by what transpired.
As a researcher and university professor, I have interviewed over 200 targets of workplace bullying, across 24 industries, 27 states, and 15 countries. Most of these individuals were unaware that they were under attack until deeply rooted in the battle. Much experienced relief when they were able to name the abuse and understand the stages of the bullying cycle.
According to Davenport, Schwartz, and Elliot, workplace bullying is “a malicious attempt to force a person out of the workplace through unjustified accusations, humiliation, general harassment, emotional abuse, and/or terror.” This may result in mental trauma and physical distress fostered by a toxic culture that tolerates and, at times, propels the abuse.
Though workplace bullying catches targets off guard, the cycle is highly predictable. It unfolds over distinct stages, which were first documented by organizational psychologist Heinz Leymann and later expanded upon by other researchers, including Duffy and Sperry and the Namies at the Workplace Bullying Institute.
Though each target’s experience is unique, the typical trajectory is described below.
Here Are The Six Stages Of Workplace Bullying
1. Target Identification
According to the Namies at the Workplace Bullying Institute, targets of workplace abuse share common characteristics. They are highly competent, creative, and top performers. They’re uninterested in office politics and possess a benevolent worldview. Targets tend to be highly respected in their work community, and colleagues often seek them out for advice.
In contrast, bullies tend to be narcissistic, lacking in job expertise, and adept at taking credit for the efforts of others. Bullies often operate behind a veil of secrecy, seeking control through manipulation, gossip, sabotage, gaslighting, and isolation. Bullies are often threatened by targets’ competence, creativity, and social capital and thus go to work attempting to push them out.
2. Jealousy and Battle Plans
Once the bully identifies his target, he starts to plot her dismissal. He often begins by ingratiating himself, pretending to be a friend and ally in an effort to encourage the target to divulge personal information that can later be used as ammunition.
The bully works to spot the target’s strengths, so in subsequent stages, he can attack them as weaknesses in an effort to erode the target’s confidence. For example, if the target is an exemplary writer, the bully may take away her writing responsibilities, citing incompetence.
3. Precipitating Event
The precipitating event is not the cause of the workplace bullying but rather the bully’s invitation to launch the attack. It may be something as simple as the target securing a promotion one of the bully’s friends was vying for or a successful initiative the target spearheaded that inadvertently stole the bully’s spotlight.
The bully uses this event as an opportunity to stir unrest and recruit bystanders to participate in the abuse.
4. Underground Battle
The initial attacks are most often quiet, in the form of lunchtime gossip, insincere showings of concern, like “Trevor sure looks tired,” and whispers of incompetence, such as “Did you notice the mistakes Shanel made during this morning’s presentation?”
Next, the bully may begin to secretly interview colleagues regarding the target’s personality, planting seeds of doubt and disdain, while advising them to keep their distance in an effort not to become “part of the problem.”
Studies show that bullies frequently contact Human Resources to express their concerns regarding the target’s performance and mental health. Often, HR will initially rebuff, citing the target’s stacks of accolades and accomplishments, yet will eventually relent and start the documentation process that the bully knows is necessary for the target’s termination.
In addition, most bullies will share their concerns with upper management, creating employment protection in the event the target later attempts to go over their head to solicit help.