According to the American Psychological Association (APA), authoritative parents are “nurturing, responsive, and supportive, yet set firm limits for their children. Children raised with this style tend to be friendly, energetic, cheerful, self-reliant, self-controlled, curious, cooperative and achievement-oriented.”
One of the primary differences between being authoritative and authoritarian is, this type of parents tend to “control children’s behavior by explaining rules, discussing, and reasoning.” Authoritative parents are not only reasonable and understanding, they are affectionate, nurturing and supportive.
Authoritative parenting style involves some of these characteristics:
- Expectations are clearly stated and children can add inputs
- Rules are clear and justified
- Communication is appropriate for the child to understand and express
- Children are happy and independent with good self-esteem
- Kids have good social skills with excellent academic success
- Children grow up to be responsible adults with better mental health
Amy Morin explains “Authoritative parents invest time and energy into preventing behavior problems before they start. They also use positive discipline strategies to reinforce good behavior.” She adds “Researchers have found kids who have authoritative parents are most likely to become responsible adults who feel comfortable expressing their opinions.”
3. Permissive parenting
Permissive parents tend to be warm and affectionate, but are less likely to be strict or set any rules for their children. These parents are responsive to their kids needs but tend to have a more friendly parent-child relationship. As they have low expectations regarding self-control and maturity, their children have difficulty following authority and rules when they grow up.
Although they love their children a lot, they need to realize the importance of setting boundaries. Allowing your children to do what they want can be detrimental in the long run. This is one of the parenting styles in psychology that can do more harm than good. The APA explains, “In this parenting style, parents are warm, but lax. Children raised with this parenting style tend to be impulsive, rebellious, aimless, domineering, aggressive and low in self-reliance, self-control and achievement.”
Some common characteristics of this style of parenting are:
- Parents are caring and communication is open
- Children take decisions instead of following rules
- Parents have low expectations
- Children have poor self-control and unable to follow rules
- Children develop egocentric behavior
- As adults, these children have problems in social interactions & relationships
Author Amy Morin writes that permissive parents “encourage their children to talk with them about their problems, but they usually don’t put much effort into discouraging poor choices or bad behavior.” Children of such parents often grow up with behavioral problems and have “have low self-esteem and may report a lot of sadness. They’re also at a higher risk for health problems, like obesity,” she adds.
4. Uninvolved Parenting
These types of parents are usually detached and show neither strictness nor warmth. They may either neglect the needs of their kids or meet only the basic needs. Uninvolved or neglectful parents tend to have mental health issues or suffer from substance abuse or financial stress. This type of parents offer excessive freedom to their children and have no expectations or boundaries. They either consciously stay detached from their children or may be confused about how to be a parent. Hence, the kids are compelled to raise themselves.
These parents are “unresponsive, unavailable and rejecting,” according to theAmerican Psychological Association. It states “Children raised with this parenting style tend to have low self-esteem and little self-confidence and seek other, sometimes inappropriate, role models to substitute for the neglectful parent.” This is one of the most harmful parenting styles in psychology.
Some basic characteristics of this parenting style involves –
- No specific discipline strategy is used
- Lack of communication
- Parents are not warm or affectionate and have no expectations from children
- Children are impulsive and unable to manage emotions in a healthy way.
- Kids may have mental health issues, behavioral problems and addiction issues
- Children may require support or help from others
Psychotherapist Amy Morin believes “Children with uninvolved parents are likely to struggle with self-esteem issues. They tend to perform poorly in school. They also exhibit frequent behavior problems and rank low in happiness.”