The 4 Common Parenting Styles and Their Effects on Kids

Common Parenting Styles Effects Kids

Do these resonate with your parenting style and ideals? Then you might be an authoritarian parent. 


These parenting style apparently does not have any such benefits but these type of parenting might be productive when the child has fallen in the grasp of bad company and peer pressure is drastically affecting him to spiral downward.


Authoritarian parenting styles has a number of negative effects on the child as studied by parenting style experts.  

  • The self-confidence of the child is lowered by the constant criticism and blaming on the part of the parent. 
  • The emotional and physical punishments can be impeding for the child’s cognitive and emotional development.
  • This type of parenting style is associated with a number of mental disorders in children like depression (Milevsky et al., 2007; 28 2008; Patock-Peckham & Morgan-Lopez, 2009), anxiety, panic disorder, PTSD and trauma. 
  • The children who have been exposed to authoritarian parenting style have over all low life satisfaction ( Leung, McBride-Chang, and Lai, 2004).
  • Children raised by authoritarian parents grow up to have significantly low self-esteem and self-doubt. These children put less worth and validation on self. In turn, this hampers their performances in career, interpersonal relationships and social interactions during their adulthood.
  • A study (Barnow et al., 2005) concluded that the use of violence and aggression by the parents to discipline their children might cause these children to model this aggression and use it against the parents as a protest when they grow up. 

Read Helicopter Parenting: Why It Fosters Failure

2. Authoritative Parenting Style

This type of parenting style is characterized by two main components which are high responsiveness and high demandingness. Baumrind combined the best elements of permissive parenting (high warmth) with the best elements of authoritarian parenting (high control) to create an authoritative parenting style. 

Salient features of Authoritative Parenting Style:

  • Parents are highly supportive, responsive, guiding yet demanding of the child.
  • Authoritative parents understand their children’s feelings and teach them how to regulate themselves and guide them to learn from any mistakes they make (Marsiglia, Walczyk, Buboltz, & Griffith-Ross, 2007).
  • In this parenting style, parents assist their children to resolve problems (Baumrind, 1966, 1971).
  • Parents are attuned with the needs of the children and discuss with them before taking decisions for them. Their viewpoint is given importance and respect (Baumrind, 1966, 1971).
  • Authoritative parents display warmth, emotional support and affection towards their children (Darling & Steinberg, 1993; Suldo & Huebner, 2004).
  • Parents encourage a both-way communication to ensure an emotionally conducive environment for the child to develop n (Darling & Steinberg, 1993; Suldo & Huebner, 2004). 
  • These parents help their children to develop their own identities and be independent but within the rules and boundaries set by parents (Grolnick & Pomerantz, 2009; Takeuchi & Takeuchi, 2008).
  • The children receive consistent guidance and hence can easily follow their parents’ rules and keep up with their demands.
  • The parent’s expectations and demands from the children are realistic, logical and achievable. 
  • Parents maintain transparency with their children and explain the logic behind the set regulations and limits.
  • Children are treated with respect and their parents consider their opinions in any decisions they make for the children.
  • Disciplinary techniques applied by authoritative parents are not harsh and psychologically catastrophic in nature.
  • Control on the children’s behaviours is moderate and guidance on the parent’s part is high.

Read Parenting Burnout: How It Can Destroy Your Marriage


According to many studies, Authoritative parenting style is one of the most effective types of parenting because it includes all the good qualities of other types of parenting. 

  • Peer problems, academic problems and other problems faced by the children can be hugely minimised due to the two-way transparent communication.
  • This parenting style effectively decreases the stress and the chances of having depression in children.
  • Children grow up to have healthy self-esteem as they grow up with appreciation, love and respect s (Baumrind, 1966, 1971; Lamborn et al., 1991; Steinberg et al., 1994). 
  • This parenting style fulfills all developmental needs of the child as a supportive, loving, warm and secure environment is provided for them to grow up. 
  • Children raised by authoritative parents grow up to have more empathy and less aggressiveness.
  • Children are happy, cheerful and satisfied with life. They have an optimistic outlook towards life.
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Shreyasi Debnath

An editor and writer keeping keen interest in painting, creative writing and reading. I did my Masters in Clinical and Counselling Psychology and have been a counselling psychologist at a primary school for the past 1 year. I love doing absolutely anything that mends a mind and soothes a soul. Most often than not, I ponder over to come up with poems. A wandering soul in search for meaning.View Author posts